wetland soils: characterization, classification, and utilization

It has now been adopted for use by the scientific community within the SADC region for purposes of uniformity. The geometrically corrected product is then used to produce wetlands maps at a scale of 1 : 50 000. M.D. The subject field is required. Wetlands are an important resource which has however been neglected by research and policy makers due to the misconception of them either being wastelands vulnerable to cultivation or natural resources with no need for management. All of them share the common factor of having excess water retained or passing through for a long enough period to influence the soil characteristics, land use and life forms that flourish within them. Understandably this varies within dambos, between dambos and between seasons but an average picture could be drawn based on average expected seasons. Prior to colonization and the enactment of the Land Apportionment Act, indigenous farmers cultivated wetlands and were successfully producing crops as rice, maize, cleus esculentus and vegetables. Digital spatial database is generated from the Surveyor General's 1 : 50 000 topographic maps. and its duration in the wetlands; wetlands can be cultivated safely using the Ngwarati The research focused on the application of natural resources valuing technique to enhance policies that affect the management of wetlands. The wetland continues south beyond the SR 82 ROW. The utilization of these ecosystems is now governed by the Natural Resources Act and the Water Act, which seek to protect them from degradation particularly through cultivation. Currently, microbial contributions to methane emissions from these systems emphasize the roles of acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens, while less frequently considering methyl-group substrates (e.g., methanol and methylamines). Soil and terrain characterization of wetlands . The country has three major regions distinguished on the basis, I.M. 4. UexkuellHRV (1985) Availability and management of potassium in wetland rice soils. In case of Mashonaland East Province, 89 randomly selected areas were verified. Water table on or above the surface (free water) in Currently research is being carried out in the area of soil moisture regimes and spectral variations in the wetlands. Areas with the highest concentration of wetlands (Central plateau) closely resemble the areas that receive the highest rainfall on comparable geologies and topography. 66-74 in Proc. and white clayey material at various stages of weathering. levels of the profile and in different proportions. Except for the Kariba Dam, which was constructed for hydroelectric power generation, all the other dams were constructed for either domestic water supply, irrigation and livestock watering or a combination of those. The definition of a wetland continues to be a subject of great debate and not any one of those put forward by various workers fits all situations to perfection. respond to liming; it has been observed from pilot schemes that farmers are very keen to participate and contribute to wetland research. seepage. Research in the Department of Research and Specialist Services is coordinated by the Lowveld Research Stations and is focused on developing an understanding of the processes in the wetland ecosystems and on formulating management options for the conservation and utilization of wetlands on a sustainable basis. Cultivation System which consists of broad-ridges and broad-furrows where Please choose whether or not you want other users to be able to see on your profile that this library is a favorite of yours. Dambo is a Chichewa word that is used to describe a grassland in both Zambia and Malawi. Such a classification would have direct input into the management of water as the major variable. Soil minerals study is vital in terms of investigating the major soil forming compounds and to find out the fate of minor and trace elements in soils. waterlogged conditions are grown in the ftirrows; the Ngwarati system ensures high crop yields, Hand-held Trimble Geographical Positioning Systems with an accuracy of plus or minus five metres are used to enhance accuracy in the field checking. In: Wetland soils: characterization, classification and utilization, pp 293–305. Wetlands are some of the most productive natural ecosystems in Zimbabwe as they provide a wide range of goods and services. (1995) Wetland and Its Rational Utilization and … Mharapara, I.M. To use vegetation as a quantifiable indicator it would be essential to determine correlations of the relevant vegetational types with the parameters that they indicate. Lowveld Research Stations, Chiredzi, Department of Research and Specialist Services  The pollutant content of the soil is character- ... Function, and Utilization of Soil Vol. The results would then be linked with the preferred utilization system and management of both dambo and catchment which might be cultivation, grazing, fishery, etc. The E-mail Address(es) you entered is(are) not in a valid format. Dambos receive incident rain, catchment run-off and seepage from catchments. These are included on the basis that they are old dambos that have been dissected by water passing through over time and thereby forming streams. Wetlands were then classified as being unsuitable for cultivation and are currently designated as grazing areas. This study was carried out to determine how grazing intensity influences soil physical and chemical properties and occurrence of herbaceous plant species in dambo wetlands. Most of the rainfall in Zimbabwe, which ranges from a few hundred millimetres to over 200 mm, is of the conventional type although the orographic type occasionally occurs in the eastern highlands due to the increased elevation. The occurrence of dambos decreases with the decrease in altitude through NR IV and V. Dambos in the central highlands and midlands are generally broader and have more gentle slopes than those found in either NR I and V. The processes of natural erosion have, over time, shaped both the catchment areas and dambos to their present condition which is generally referred to as undulating. http:\/\/www.worldcat.org\/oclc\/12732720>. This combination has been found to be among the most ideal band combinations used in classifying wetlands (Maedel et al, 1996). ; Philippines. It mainly occurs in areas underlain by granite alluvial sediments. upland crops are grown on ridges whilst rice or other crops tolerant to Soil Management Support Services.\n, Wetland soils : characterization, classification, and utilization : proceedings of a workshop held 26 March to 5 April 1984\"@, Export to EndNote / Reference Manager(non-Latin). Wetland Soils: Characterization, Classification and Utilization. Yu, K.W., Faulkner, S.P., and Tao, R. 2006. Two further aspects of chemical degradation, Chemical kinetics of wetland rice soil relative to soil fertility. Chemosphere 62:905-914. In: Wetland soils : characterization, classification, and utilization : proceedings of a workshop held 26 March to 5 April 1984 International Rice Research Institute - ISBN 9789711041397 - p. 123 - 138. Zimbabwe lies within the tropics and covers an area of 396 000 km2 extending from 15�30'S to 22�30'S and from 25�E to 33�E . The occurrence of toxicity from heavy minerals in soils derived from ultra-mafic rocks in the Great Dyke would need recognition and identification of wetlands affected by this constraint. Pilot schemes based on farmer participatory research approaches at catchment level would provide valuable information. Please enter the subject. Included in this class are riverine dambos which are found along most of the country's major drainage systems. Redox potential characterization and soil greenhouse gas concentration across a hydrological gradient in a Gulf coast forest. Palatability of grasses as indicated by them being preferred by grazing animals is also an indicator of them being nutritious. Comparable dambos in the high rainfall areas are more advanced in their development than those in lower rainfall areas in respect to profile formation/destruction. The classification process involves grouping the unclassified pixels in a satellite image into different specified classes basing on probability. 1997. This classification would provide input into the guidelines for crop selection and cropping patterns for wetland areas. Wetlands have different characteristics. An example of such classification for dambos intended for cultivation would have the following criteria: Vegetation is a potential good indicator of the wetland condition in respect to hydrology and soil fertility and hence can be used as a quick indicator of the possible uses of a dambo. extensive utilization of both legacy soil data and legacy soil-landscape knowledge – which in ... characterization of soil samples from >105 representative soil profiles distributed throughout the ... increased palustrine wetland classification accuracy in Yellowstone National Park by combining The inventory and mapping of wetlands has been done in Mashonaland East Province by the IRIS Unit in the Research and Technical Branch of the Department of Natural Resources. Soil Classification and Genesis. Please select Ok if you would like to proceed with this request anyway. Those derived from granite are less fertile P.O. Geographical Information Systems (GIS), remote sensing techniques and orthodox manual techniques are used in IRIS . Dambos are part of an environmental system operated and managed by farmers for their benefit and the impact of their utilization on the whole system should be such that it is economically viable and sustainable. Adding value to wetlands through cultivation raises the interest of farmers in natural resource management. of elevation: Lowveld (below 900 m above sea level), Middleveld (900-1 200 m) and Highveld (above 1 200 m). and Keifer R.W. USFWS Classification: PSS1. Wetlands may be classified by certain soil types (e.g., histosols – organic soils, gleysols – mineral soils, fluvisols – alluvial soils, and temporarily flooded soils like some vertisols – shrink and swell soils, planosols – impermeable clay soils, plinthic soils with ironstone concretions, and gleyic soils like gleysols that are seasonally saturated with deeper water tables). Cananada pp233-244. The higher the rainfall is, the higher is the frequency of such movement and hence the higher the rate of dambo development. A useful classification of wetlands based on the hydrology would be the groundwater level (wetness) of the dambo at the critical stages of its utilization cycle. Two wetlands, dambo 1 and dambo 2, are identified from the classification methodology using satellite imagery at an average accuracy of 96%, which is within the overall acceptable classification accuracy for land cover mapping in the Department of Natural Resources. The data collected on the ground checking and that of the MLC is compiled into a contingency table to assess the accuracy. Research has trailed behind mainly because of the misconceptions, ignorance, fear to destroy wetlands and the restrictive legislation imposed by the administrators. Matiza, T. and Crafter S.A. (Editors), IUCN. Lecture 2 hours, laboratory 2 hours per week. Excessive pressure on these ecosystems will result in their degradation since they have, albeit more but finite resources. Monitoring is being carried out on a wide range of physical, chemical, biological and socioeconomic factors that are relevant to the management of wetlands. Soil Management Support Services. Pp. CSES 4253. Heavy clay with top black soils and variants of gray Proceedings of a workshop held 26 Mar to 5 Apr 1984 The mafic rocks give rise to formations rich in ferromagnesian minerals and thereby giving rise to red and yellowish red clays in well drained positions. The large impoundments include Kariba, Mutirikwi, Chivero, Manyame and Mazvikadei Dams. The E-mail message field is required. Please enter recipient e-mail address(es). Get this from a library! It is estimated that Zimbabwe is endowed with 1.28 million hectares of wetland areas and 20% of these are in the communal areas. The research is expected to enhance inventorying and mapping capabilities of the wetlands as well as the vegetation that is associated with them. Wetland plants are commonly defined as those “growing in water or on a substrate that is at least periodically deficient in oxygen as a result of excessive water content” (Cowardin et al. Soil Management Support Services. The highest concentration of dambos is found above the 700 in contour which coincides with areas covered by NR 1, 11, III and parts of IV. Methods for evaluating wetland condition #7 Wetlands Classification Principal Contributor U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Naomi E. Detenbeck Prepared jointly by: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Health and Ecological Criteria Division (Office of Science and Technology) and Wetlands Division (Office of Wetlands, Oceans, and Watersheds) This term includes Development of such a classification system would require monitoring of ground water levels over a number of seasons covering both the extremes as well as the average quality ranges. Wetland soils differ widely in their texture, depth, profile, nutrient status, stability, workability, etc., to the point that many variants of this are found within and … Examples in this are the `Mukute tree' which is an indicator of shallow groundwater tables and is often used for the siting of shallow wells. These swamps are used for grazing and livestock watering (Matiza, 1994). Complexes of metamorphosed basaltic and andesitic lavas and sediments, although less extensive in area than the other formations, are an important feature of the Zimbabwean geology. Wetlands are a valuable natural resource that has not received the attention that it deserves for far too long and is currently degrading at an alarming rate which might soon get beyond control, This is despite the fact that this resource offers the most obvious opportunity for a `green revolution' for this region - if only we can all see it that way. Some of the constraints in the research of wetlands in Zimbabwe are: Future research is being directed at analyzing appropriate methodologies of utilizing dambos with the aim of assisting the Natural Resources Board (NRB) and Department of Natural Resources (DNR) in the process of exempting the communities and or individuals who might want to utilize wetlands. You may send this item to up to five recipients. Matiza, T. 1994. Frost causes damage to most crops and wetlands are more susceptible to its occurrence than uplands since they accumulate cold air pockets due to their hollow formations. lack of appropriate infrastructure/support services The satellite which is used is Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM). (Typically offered: Fall Odd Years) materials: granite and dolerite. In this respect grasses could be used as indicators of soil nutrient status and hence potential dambo utilization system. It must be realized that, whilst the pieces of legislation are restrictive, their relaxation in the absence of appropriate utilization guidelines based on sound and proven scientific principles would be an act of irresponsibility which could worsen the current situation. In general, dambos are be valley bottoms or depressions that form natural drainage systems with or without a developed and distinct stream. Some features of WorldCat will not be available. Critical stages could be the time of land preparation, crop establishment or crop harvest. Separate up to five addresses with commas (,). Lillesand T.M. All available 16S rRNA gene sequences recovered from wetlands in public databases were retrieved. The majority of dambos have geological characteristics of the Basement Complex which is largely comprised of the igneous and the metamorphic rocks. The selection of training areas is primarily based on the geological/underlying bedrock types. Please enter your name. The two main seasons in Zimbabwe are considered to be the most important factor on selecting the appropriate date for satellite remotely sensed data suited for wetlands inventorying and mapping. The final classification is geometrically corrected to the UTM system using the Integrated Resource Information System (IRIS) of the Department of Natural Resources. Materials of sedimentary or aeolian origin are also found mainly in the northern and northwestern parts of the country accounting for 25 % of the land area. Satellite image analysis is used in the classification process. Mharapara  Basalts extruded during the Jurassic period occur in two areas: north of the watershed and south of the watershed and only differ in their mineralogy. A brief outline of each of these wetlands is presented below. Some close associations exist between soil and rainfall, rainfall and vegetation and soil and vegetation (Nyamapfene, 1985). These are mapped and stored separately in the hydrological thematic layer of IRIS database. It is expected that results from these and other studies will be useful in the review of the current legislation. Flood plains are associated with the major drainage systems and tend to be well developed in low lying flat areas. To-date there is a dearth of information regarding their nature, management and response to agriculturally related activities. Pastures with such grasses are generally referred to as being `sweet' and are associated with fertile unleached soils. Locations of such dambos would broadly coincide with the NR I and II (high), III (medium) and IV and V (low) respectively. system (reduces siltation of the drainage system); the majority of wetland soils are acidic and do These ecosystems are dynamic and hence details could change over a short period. In this respect there is need to determine optimal production potentials for the different classes of dambos and thereby draw their utilization guidelines and limits. Your Web browser is not enabled for JavaScript. Water table dynamics and significance to soil genesis. [International Rice Research Institute. Chemical kinetics of wetland rice soils relative to soil fertility. Maedel, J., Murtha, P. and Mocre, K. 1996. IRIS is an environmental information system that is used to manage the natural resources and environment (at present in Mashonaland East Province). Wetland soils are one of the largest natural contributors to the emission of methane, a potent greenhouse gas. (Typically offered: Fall Odd Years) Soil Classification: Chobee, Winder, and Gator soils, depressional (hydric) Wetland 1 is located at the southwest corner of SR 82 and SR 29. Rainfall decreases from east to west and to a limited extent from north to south. Currently wetlands and their related catchments continue to degrade at an alarming rate and the cultivation of wetlands is increasing without the granted permission from the Board. 0 with reviews - Be the first. For the purposes of this paper, only aspects referring to dambos will be discussed in detail. pp 1-8. Mtg (VIII ISCOM): Characterization, Classification, and Utilization of Wet Soils, J. M. Kimble ed. –Conducted the hydric/non-hydric soil (H/NH) evaluation at 119 wetlands to determine if that interface was within the wetland boundary, near the wetland boundary (palmetto fringe), or outside the wetland boundary. Rainfall has a major influence on dambo formation and development and hence their occurrence in Zimbabwe is closely related to the rainfall distribution patterns. Agricultural production potential decreases from NR I to NR V. NR I has the highest mean annual rainfall and the lowest daily evapotranspiration whilst NR V has the lowest annual rainfall but has the highest evapotranspiration. The assumption is that wetlands found on different geological formations have different moisture regimes because of the different moisture retention capacities they possess (Murwira 1997). Those facing other directions are sheltered from the cold winds and also benefit from the afternoon sun. Murwira, A. Prerequisite: CSES 2203 and CSES 2201L. Others include the Department of Natural Resources, several departments at the University of Zimbabwe and IUCN. The wetland types were associated with specific vegetation forms and soil attributes. Mkwanda, R. 1995. Locally these ecosystems would be referred to as `bani' (Shona) or `vlei' (adapted Africaans). Owen, R., Verbeek, K., Jackson, J., Steenhuis, T. (Editors). Corequisite: Lab component. A few pans occur in the drier and hotter environments of the country which include the western districts (Tjolotjo Communal Areas and Hwange National Park) and the southern districts (Gonarezhou National Park and Mwenezi). pp 83-87. Changchun: Jilin Science Technology Press[in Chinese]. Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation. Potentially impacted wetlands require a functions assessment. River, streams and sponges are treated as separate natural resources. The supervised classification is followed by field verification. Zimbabwe Agricultural Journal 81-4. Assessment of digital data for wetland identification in the Cariboo/Chilcotin Region of British Columbia. Communications in Soil … Wetland soils differ widely in their texture, depth, profile, nutrient status, stability, workability, etc., to the point that many variants of this are found within and between dambos in close proximity. Lecture and field evaluation of soil properties and their relation to soil genesis and soil classification with emphasis on soils of Arkansas. Federal and Massachusetts guidelines regarding the creation of soil and the utilization of organic amendments in mitigation wetlands lack specific parameters and thresholds. In Zimbabwe such wetland ecosystems include dambos (mapani), flood plains, artificial impoundments and pans.

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